# Exchanging identical particles and topological quantum computing. (arXiv:1810.05208v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

The phase factor $(-1)^{2s}$ that features in the exchange symmetry for

identical spin-$s$ fermions or bosons is not simply and automatically equal to

the phase factor one can observe in an interference experiment that involves

physically exchanging two such particles. The observable phase contains, in

general, single-particle geometric and dynamical phases as well, induced by

both spin and spatial exchange transformations. By extending the analysis to

(non-abelian) anyons it is argued that, similarly, there are single-anyon

geometric and dynamical contributions in addition to purely topological unitary

transformations that accompany physical exchanges of anyons. Work remains to be

done in order to demonstrate---if it is still true---that those additional

contributions to the gates in anyonic topological quantum computers do not

destroy the inherent robustness of the ideal gates. This negative result is

described most clearly in terms of the Berry matrix.