# Mass Defect Effects in Atomic Clocks. (arXiv:1703.05290v5 [physics.atom-ph] UPDATED)

transitions. We have found that some well-known frequency shifts (gravitational

shift and motion-induced shifts such as: quadratic Doppler and micromotion

shifts) can be interpreted as consequences of the mass defect in quantum atomic

physics, i.e., without the need for the concept of time dilation used in

special and general relativity theories. Moreover, we show that the inclusion

of the mass defect leads to previously unknown shifts for clocks based on

trapped ions.