Unbiased All-Optical Random-Number Generator. (arXiv:1712.02254v1 [quant-ph])

The generation of random bits is of enormous importance in modern information
science. Cryptographic security is based on random numbers which require a
physical process for their generation. This is commonly performed by hardware
random number generators. These exhibit often a number of problems, namely
experimental bias, memory in the system, and other technical subtleties, which
reduce the reliability in the entropy estimation. Further, the generated
outcome has to be post-processed to "iron out" such spurious effects. Here, we
present a purely optical randomness generator, based on the bi-stable output of
an optical parametric oscillator. Detector noise plays no role and no further
post-processing is required. Upon entering the bi-stable regime, initially the
resulting output phase depends on vacuum fluctuations. Later, the phase is
rigidly locked and can be well determined versus a pulse train, which is
derived from the pump laser. This delivers an ambiguity-free output, which is
reliably detected and associated with a binary outcome. The resulting random
bit stream resembles a perfect coin toss and passes all relevant randomness
measures. The random nature of the generated binary outcome is furthermore
confirmed by an analysis of resulting conditional entropies.

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