Isotropic state

An isotropic statehorodecki97reduction is a d × d dimensional bipartite quantum state that is invariant under any unitary of the form U ⊗ U * , where * denotes complex conjugate. That is, any state with the property that for any unitary U on one part of the system,

ρ = (U ⊗ U * )ρ(U †  ⊗ (U * ) † ).


The isotropic states is a one-parameter family of states and can be written as

(1 − α)I/d2 + αϕ + ⟩⟨ϕ + ∣,  where  − 1/(d2 − 1) ≤ α ≤ 1 and $|\phi^+\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{d}} \sum_j |j\rangle \otimes |j \rangle$ i.e. a mixture (or pseudomixture for α < 0) of the maximally mixed state and the maximally entangled state.

In terms of the singlet fraction F, the fidelity to the maximally entangled state, the isotropic states can be parametrized as

$$\rho = \frac{d^2}{d^2-1}\left[ (1-F) I/d^2 + (F-1/d^2) |\phi^+\rangle \langle \phi^+| \right]$$ where 0 ≤ F ≤ 1.


Isotropic states are separable for F ≤ 1/d or equivalently α ≤ 1/(d+1), and entangled otherwise. All entangled isotropic states violate the reduction separability criterion, and are therefore also distillable.

See also


Category: Quantum States

Last modified: 
Monday, October 26, 2015 - 17:56